Archives For Supernatural


Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Antipope”, in ROMAN CATHOLICISM, one who opposes the legitimately elected bishop of Rome, endeavors to secure the papal throne, and to some degree succeeds materially in the attempt. This abstract definition is necessarily broad and does not reckon with the complexity of individual cases. The elections of several antipopes are greatly obscured by incomplete or biased records, and at times even their contemporaries could not decide who was the true pope. It is impossible, therefore, to establish an absolutely definitive list of antipopes. Historically, antipopes have arisen as a result of a variety of causes; the following are some examples:

1. Doctrinal disagreement.

2. Deportation of the pope. (The emperor Constantius II, a follower of the heretical doctrine ARIANISM, exiled Pope Liberius for his orthodoxy [355[ and imposed the archdeacon Felix on the Roman clergy as Pope Felix II. Eventually, Liberius was allowed to return.)

Pope Felix II

3. Double elections arbitrated by the secular authority. (In 418 the archdeacon Eulalius was elected by a faction. The rest of the clergy, however, chose the priest Boniface I, who was eventually recognized by the emperor.)

Bonifice

4. Double elections and subsequent recourse to a third candidate.

5. Change in the manner of choosing the pope.

A great number of antipopes date to the moving of the official residence of the PAPACY from Rome to Avignon, France, in the 14th century. This led to a SCHISM (the Great Western Schism) beginning in 1378 that resulted in a papacy in Rome (regarded as canonical), a papacy in Avignon (regarded as antipapal), and eventually a third papacy established by the Council of Pisa (also regarded as antipapal). Unity was finally achieved by the election of Martin V on Nov. 11, 1417.

Martin V

(Comeback on 11/20/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Anti-Semitism”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Antiope”, in Greek legend, the mother, by ZEUS, of the twins AMPHION AND ZETHUS. According to one account, her beauty attracted Zeus, who, assuming, the form of a satyr, raped her. Pregnant and afraid of her father, she ran away and married Epopeus, king of Sicyon; she was later brought back and imprisoned by her uncle Lycus. On the the way back from Sicyon, or after escaping from prison, Antiope bore Amphion and Zethus, who were brought up by herdsmen. Later she joined her sons, whereupon they killed Lycus and Dirce, his wife. Because of Dirce’s murder, DIONYSUS, to whose worship she had been devoted, caused Antiope to go mad. She wandered over all of Greece until she was cured and married by PHOCUS of Tithorea, on Mt. Parnassus.

Antiope was also the name of a daughter of ARES, the god of war, and a queen of the AMAZONS. The Greek hero THESEUS stole her for his wife.

Zethus, Antiope and Amphion

(Comeback on 11/19/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Antipope”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Antinomianism”, (Greek:anti, “against”, nomos, “law”), doctrine according to which Christians are freed by GRACE from the necessity of obeying the Mosaic Law. The antinomians rejected the very notion of obedience as legalistic; to them the good life flowed from the inner working of the HOLY SPIRIT.

The ideas of antinomianism had been present in the early church, and some gnostic heretics believed that freedom from law meant license. The doctrine of antinomianism, however, grew out of the Protestant controversies on the law and gospel and was first attributed to MARTIN LUTHER’s collaborator, Johann Agricola, whom Luther opposed on this issue. It also appeared in the Reformed branch of PROTESTANTISM. The left-wing ANABAPTISTS were accused of antinomianism, both for theological reason and also because they opposed the cooperation of CHURCH AND STATE, which was considered necessary for law and order. For similar reasons, in the 17th century, Separatists, FAMILISTS, Ranters, and Independents in England were called antinomians by the established churches. The Evangelical movement at the end of the 18th century produced its own antinomians who claimed an inner experience and a “new life,” which they considered the true source of good works.

Antinomianism – the Lawful Path. A pastor defaces a statue of Moses, with the words IF IT FEELS GOOD DO

(Comeback on 11/18/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Antiope”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Antilochus”, in Greek legend, son of NESTOR, king of Pylos. One of the suitors of HELEN, he accompanied his father to the Trojan War and distinguished himself as acting commander of the Pylians. When Nestor was attacked by MEMNON (king of the Ethiopians), Antilochus saved his father’s life at the sacrifice of his own, thus fulfilling the oracle that had bidden him “beware of an Ethiopian.” According to two different traditions, Antilochus was either slain by HECTOR or, alternatedly, by PARIS in the temple of the Thymbraean APOLLO together with his friend ACHILLES.

RIII.2-2961.jpg - RIII.2-2961: The ransom of Hector. Above: Nestor, Athena, Hermes, Antilochus. Below: Eros, the body of Hector, Priam, Thetis.Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (Göttingen, 1845- Dresden, 1923), Ausfürliches Lexikon der griechisches und römisches Mythologie, 1884.

Priam | RIII.2-2961: The ransom of Hector. Above: Nestor, Athena, Hermes, Antilochus. Below: Eros, the body of Hector, Priam, Thetis. Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (Göttingen, 1845- Dresden, 1923), Ausfürliches Lexikon der griechisches und römisches Mythologie, 1884.

(Comeback on 11/17/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Antinomianism”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Antigone”, in Greek mythology, the daughter born of the incestuous union of OEDIPUS and his mother, Jocasta. After her father blinded himself upon discovering that he had killed his father and married his mother, Antigone and her sister Ismene served as Oedipus’ guides, following him from Thebes into exile until his death near Athens. Returning to Thebes, they attempted to reconcile their quarreling brothers—Eteocles, who was defending his position as king, and Polyneices, who was attacking Thebes. Both brothers were killed, and their uncle Creon became king. After giving Eteocles a state funeral, he condemned the corpse of the traitor Polyneices to lie unburied. Antigone, thou, buried Polyneices secretly. For that she was ordered by Creon to be executed and was immured in a cave, where she hanged herself. Her beloved, Haemon, son of Creon, committed suicide. (This is according to Sophocles’ Antigone, but according to Euripides, Antigone escaped and lived happily with Haemon.)

Marie Stillman, “Antigone from ‘Antigone’ by Sophocles”

(Comeback on 11/16/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Antilochus”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Antichrist”, the chief enemy of JESUS CHRIST. The earliest mention of the name Antichrist—which was probably coined in Christian eschatological literature (that is, literature concerned with the end of time)—is in the letters of St. John (1 John 2: 18, 22, 2 John 7), although the figure does appear in the earlier 2 Thessalonians as “the lawless one.” The idea of a mighty ruler who will appear at the end of time and whose essence is enmity of God is older and was taken from JUDAISM.

Jewish ESCHATOLOGY had been influenced by Iranian and Babylonian myths of the battle of God and the Devil at the end of time. The OLD TESTAMENT conception of the struggle is found in the Prophecy of Daniel, written at the beginning of the Maccabean period (c. 167-164 BCE). The historical figure who served as a model for the Antichrist was Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the persecutor of the Jews, and he left a lasting impression upon the conception. Since then, ever recurring characterizations of this figure are that he would appear as a might ruler at the head of gigantic armies, destroy three rulers (the three horns, Daniel 7:8, 24), persecute the saints (7:25), and devastate the Temple of God.

A Christian view of the Antichrist is given in 2 Thessalonians 2. Here the Antichrist appears as a tempter who works by signs and wonders and seeks to obtain divine honors; it is further signified that this”man of lawlessness” will obtain credence, especially among the Jews because they have not accepted the truth. This version of the figure of the Antichrist, who may now really for the first time be described by this name, appears to have been at once widely accepted in Christendom. The idea that Jews would believe in the Antichrist as punishment for not having believed in the true Christ seems to be expressed by the author of the fourth Gospel (John 5:43). The conception of the Antichrist as a perverter of men led naturally to his connection with false doctrine (1 John 2:18, 22, 4:3, 2 John 7). In REVELATION TO JOHN the Antichrist is seen as a worker of wonders and a seducer.

In the Middle Ages the idea of the Antichrist developed into a powerful historical and political factor, especially in times of crisis. It became common for opponents, including popes and emperors, to call each other the Antichrist. Immense interest was focused and “the signs of the times” preceding it: upheavals in nature, wars, pestilence, famine, and other disasters. Preachers spread warnings of his coming in order to call the people to repentance throughout the 14th and 15th centuries.

During the REFORMATION, the Reformers, especially MARTIN LUTHER, did not attack individual popes but the PAPACY itself as the Antichrist. This idea that evil was embodied in the head of the church itself, with the clergy as the “body of the Antichrist,” became the most powerful weapon to discredit and denigrate the papacy.

After the Reformation, emphasis on the Antichrist figure gradually diminished. Among some modern Protestant theologians the Antichrist can be interpreted as whatever denies the lordship of Christ and tends to deify a political power—within either the church or the state. In premillennial theology the experience of a personal Antichrist at the end of time remains strong. (See also MILLENNIALISM)

 

adam_eve.jpg

The Antichrist Manuscript Made Public By Bavarian Library

 

(Comeback on 11/15/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Antigone”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Anthroposophy”, philosophy based on the premise that the human intellect has the ability to contact spiritual worlds. It was formulated by RUDOLF STEINER, an Austrian philosopher, scientist, and artist, who postulated the existence of a spiritual world comprehensible to pure thought but fully accessible only to the highest faculties latent in all humans. The term, based on Greek anthropos human being,” and sophia, “wisdom,” suggests roots in both THEOSOPHY and philosophy. Steiner regarded human beings as having originally participated in the spiritual processes of the world through a dreamlike consciousness. Claiming that an enhanced consciousness can again perceive spiritual worlds, he attempted to develop a faculty for spiritual perception independent of the senses. He founded the Anthroposophical Society in 1912. The society, now based in Dornach, Switz., has branches and schools around the world.

Corps de Michael

(Comeback on 11/14/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Antichrist”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Anthropomorphism”, (from Greek: anthropos, “human being,” and  morphe, “form”), the attribution of human form or other human characteristics to any nonhuman object. In religions, the term is applied to any statement that depicts what is sacred as having bodily form resembling that of human beings, or as possessing qualities of thought, will, or emotion that are continuous with those experienced by humans. Any reference to the divine as having a human body or a part of a human body is an anthropomorphism—e.g., the hand, the eye, or the mouth of God. References to the mental aspects of humans are also regarded as anthropomorphisms—e.g. the will, the mind, the compassion, and the love of God.

Good examples of anthropomorphisms in religion are those of the ancient Greeks and Romans, whose gods resembled humans in almost everything except their immortality, their places of residence, and their magical powers over nature. Xenophanes (6th-5th century BCE) attacked the anthropomorphism of Homer and Hesiod in ascribing “to the gods all deeds that are a shame and a disgrace among men: thieving, adultery, fraud.” Similarly, Plato repudiated the anthropomorphism of the traditional Homeric mythology and instead asserted the idea, in accord with Xenophanes, that the divine is one, and beyond human powers of comprehension.

The classical Hebrew prophets, such as AMOS and ISAIAH, were vigorous critics of the anthropomorphism of their day, reminding their listeners, for example, that the moral judgements of God were not based upon the tribal preferences that influence human judgment. The prophets did not entirely abandon anthropomorphism, however, but freely employed refined anthropomorphic symbols as indispensable to their concept of God as personal. The author of the Book of Ecclesiastes carried the critique of anthropomorphism further, approaching the idea of an impersonal cosmic force in place of the Hebraic personal God.

The many gods of the Hindu tradition also often are conceived in anthropomorphic terms. It is a well established doctrine in HINDUISM that a god, out of his grace and as a boon to his devotees, willingly takes on human form in order to make himself more accessible to them. The god VISHNU, for example, incarnates periodically as one or another of his AVATARS. In the BHAGAVAD GITA, one of these avatars, KRISHNA, declares, “though myself unborn, undying, the lord of creatures…whenever sacred duty decays and chaos prevails, then I create myself.” Furthermore, deities of all sorts are thought also to be present in the form of the images and ICONS worshiped in the temple and at home, many of which are human in form.

While many thinkers have believed it possible to purge THEISM (belief in the existence of God) of all traces of anthropomorphism, others have regarded the latter as essential to theistic knowledge and language, since these areas are necessarily conditioned by human sel-experience; the human subject invariably interprets nonhuman reality after analogies drawn from human experience. This problem raises philosophical questions about the validity of theism, idealism, or any other form of knowledge.

Anthropomorphic pareidolia by Giuseppe Arcimboldo

(Comeback on 11/13/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Anthroposophy”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Saint Anthony of Egypt”, (b.c. 251, Koma, near al-Minya, Heptanomis [Middle Egypt], Egypt—d. Jan. 17?, 356, Dayr Mari Antonios hermitage, near the Red Sea; feast day January 17), religious HERMIT and one of the earliest monks, considered the founder and father of organized Christian MONASTICISM.

A disciple of Paul of Thebes, Anthony began to practice an ascetic life at the age of 20 and after 15 years withdrew to Mount Pispir, where he lived from about 286 to 305. During the course of this retreat, he began his mythic combat against the Devil, withstanding a series of temptations famous in Christian theology and ICONOGRAPHY. (The temptations of Anthony have often been used as a subject in both literature and art, notably in the paintings of Hiëronymus Bosch, Matthias Grünewald, and Max Ernst.) About 305 he emerged from his retreat to instruct and organize the monastic life of the hermits who had established themselves nearby. When Christian persecution ended after the EDICT OF MILAN (313), he moved to a mountain in the Eastern Desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, where the monastery Dayr Mari Antonios still stands.

The monastic rule that bears Anthony’s name was compiled from writings and discourses attributed to him in the Life of St. Antony (by Athanasius) and the Apophthegmata patrum and was still observed in the 20th century by a number of Coptic and Armenian monks. Anthony’s popularity as a saint reached its height in the Middle Ages. The Order of Hospitallers of St. Anthony was founded near Grenoble, France (c. 1100, and this institution became a PILGRIMAGE center for persons suffering from the disease known as St. Anthony’s fire (or ergotism). The black-robed Hospitallers, ringing small bells as they collected alms—as well as their pigs, allowed by special privilege to run free in medieval streets—became part of the later iconography associated with St. Anthony.

st anthony of egypt by albrect durer 1519

St. Anthony of Egypt, by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Culver Pictures)

(Comeback on 11/12/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Anthropomorphism”.

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Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions

Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.

Today’s religious topic is as follows:

“Anthesteria”, an Athenian festival in honor of DIONYSUS, held annually for three days in the month of Anthesterion (February-March) to celebrate the beginning of spring and the maturing of the wine stored at the previous vintage. On the first day LIBATIONS were offered to Dionysus from the newly opened casks. The second day was a time of popular merrymaking, but the state performed a secret ceremony in a SANCTUARY of Dionysus in the Lenaeum, in which the wife of the king Archon went through a ceremony of marriage to Dionysus. It may have been believed that the souls of the dead emerged from the Underworld on these days; people chewed leaves of whitehorn and smeared their doors with tar to protect themselves from evil. The third day was given over to CHTHONIC (Underworld) rites.

Anthesteria

(Comeback on 11/11/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Saint Anthony of Egypt”.

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