Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions
Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.
Today’s religious topic is as follows:
“Antipope”, in ROMAN CATHOLICISM, one who opposes the legitimately elected bishop of Rome, endeavors to secure the papal throne, and to some degree succeeds materially in the attempt. This abstract definition is necessarily broad and does not reckon with the complexity of individual cases. The elections of several antipopes are greatly obscured by incomplete or biased records, and at times even their contemporaries could not decide who was the true pope. It is impossible, therefore, to establish an absolutely definitive list of antipopes. Historically, antipopes have arisen as a result of a variety of causes; the following are some examples:
1. Doctrinal disagreement.
2. Deportation of the pope. (The emperor Constantius II, a follower of the heretical doctrine ARIANISM, exiled Pope Liberius for his orthodoxy [355[ and imposed the archdeacon Felix on the Roman clergy as Pope Felix II. Eventually, Liberius was allowed to return.)
Pope Felix II
3. Double elections arbitrated by the secular authority. (In 418 the archdeacon Eulalius was elected by a faction. The rest of the clergy, however, chose the priest Boniface I, who was eventually recognized by the emperor.)
4. Double elections and subsequent recourse to a third candidate.
5. Change in the manner of choosing the pope.
A great number of antipopes date to the moving of the official residence of the PAPACY from Rome to Avignon, France, in the 14th century. This led to a SCHISM (the Great Western Schism) beginning in 1378 that resulted in a papacy in Rome (regarded as canonical), a papacy in Avignon (regarded as antipapal), and eventually a third papacy established by the Council of Pisa (also regarded as antipapal). Unity was finally achieved by the election of Martin V on Nov. 11, 1417.
(Comeback on 11/20/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Anti-Semitism”.
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