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Almsman means a person who is living through charitable offerings.It was sited in Shakespeare’s King Richard II (R2 III.iii.149 [King Richard says to Aumerle] I’ll give my gay apparel for an almsman’s gown.
From Left, Bagot (Allan Kleban), John O’Gaunt (Dan Tucker), Bolingbroke (David Hastings), Aumerle (Sean McGuire), King Richard (Greg Faber), Queen (Melissa Kearney), Mowbray (Lee Hamilton), Earl of Salisbury (Tom Wheeler) in Arden Shakespeare Gild’s RICHARD THE SECOND in Delaware until June 28.
Taken from the Complete Works of William Shakespeare
The Winter’s Tale
ACT V. SCENE III—The same. A Room in PAULINA’s
Per. And give me leave;
And do not say ’tis superstition, that
I kneel, and them implore her blessing.—Lady,
Dear queen, that ended when I but began,
Give me that hand of yours to kiss.
Paul. O, patience!
The statue is but newly fix’d, the colour’s
Not dry. [on,
Cam. My lord, your sorrow was too sore laid
Which sixteen winters cannot blow away,
So many summers dry: Scarce any joy
Did ever so long live; no sorrow
But kill’d itself much sooner.
Pol. Dear my brother,
Let him that was the cause of this have power
To take off so much grief from you as he
Will piece up in himself.
Paul. Indeed, my lord,
If I had thought the sight of my poor image
Would thus have wrought you,—for the stone
I’d not have show’d it.
Leon. Do not draw the curtain.
Paul. No longer shall you gaze on’t; lest
May think anon it moves.
Leon. Let be, let be.—
Would I were dead, but that, methinks, al-
What was he that did make it?—See, my lord,
Would you not deem it breath’d? and that
Did verily bear blood?
Pol. Masterly done:
The very life seems warm upon her lip.
Leon. The fixture of her eye has motion in’t,
As we are mock’d with art.
Paul. I’ll draw the curtain:
My lord’s almost so far transported that
He’ll think anon it lives.
Leon. O sweet Paulina,
Make me to think so twenty years together!
No settled senses of the world can match
The pleasure of that madness. Let’t alone.
Paul. I am sorry, sir, I have thus far stirr’d
I could afflict you further.
Leon. Do, Paulina;
For this affliction has a taste as sweet
As any cordial comfort.—Still, methinks,
There is an air comes from her: what fine chisel
Could ever yet cut breath? Let no man mock
For I will kiss her!
Paul. Good my lord, forbear:
The ruddiness upon her lip is wet;
You’ll mar it if you kiss it; stain your own
With oily painting. Shall I draw the curtain?
Leon. No, not these twenty years.
Per. So long could I
Stand by, a looker on.
Paul. Either forbear,
Quit presently the chapel, or resolve you
For more amazement. If you can behold
I’ll make the statue move indeed, descend
And take you by the hand: but then you’ll
Which I protest against,—I am assisted
By wicked powers.
(On 11/01/14 – Join me for the continuation of “The Winter’s Tale”,
ACT V. SCENE III—The same. A Room in PAULINA’s
Taken from the Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religions
Here is a dose of daily religion from A to Z.
Today’s religious topic is as follows:
‘”Animism” , belief in spiritual beings that are capable of helping or harming human interests. In Primitive Culture (1871), SIR EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR proposed the term and the view that animism is the first stage in the development of religion.
To the intellectuals of the 19th century, profoundly affected by Darwin’s new biology, animism seemed a key to the so-called primitive mind-human intellect at the earliest knowable stage of cultural evolution. At present this view is considered to be rooted in a profoundly mistaken premise, as all contemporary cultures and religions reflect a fully evolved human intelligence.
In order to undertake a systematic study of the evolution of religion, Tylor required “minimum definition of religion” and found it in “the Belief in Spiritual Beings.” If it could be shown that no people was devoid of such minimal belief, then it would be known that all of humanity already had passed the threshold into “the religious state of culture.” He assembled ethnographic cases and arranged them in series from what seemed to him the simplest or earliest to the most complex or recent. In this way he argued that religion had evolved from a “doctrine of souls” arising from reflection upon death, dreams, and apparitions to a wider “doctrine of spirits,” which eventually expanded to embrace powerful DEMONS and gods. Tylor asserted that humans everywhere would be impressed by the vividness of dream images and would reason that dreams of dead kin or of distant friends were proof of the existence of souls. The simple belief in these spiritual beings independent of natural bodies would, he thought, expand to include more elaborate religious doctrines, accompanied by rites designed to influence powerful spirits. Tylor showed that animistic beliefs exhibit great variety and often are uniquely suited to the cultures and natural settings in which they are found.
The term animism covers a range of spirits, from sojourning ghosts and mortal witches to perennial beings, whose natures and dispositions to humanity are attributed by categories. Spirits represent particular powers and must be handled accordingly. When trouble is encountered, the responsible witch, demon, or disgruntled spirit must be identified by the diviner. The cure ma rely upon ritual cleansing, propitiation, or even the overpowering of the malevolent force through supernatural counteragency.
(Comeback on 11/01/14 and continue to learn about religion. Tomorrow you’ll read and learn more about “Anitya”.
#ReligiousTopicOfTheDay, #poetsareangels.com, @FelinaSilver
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