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US hottest spots of warming: Northeast, Southwest
Badly sealed oil and gas wellbores leak emissions barely monitored, experts find.
Milkweed essential to monarchs in decline because of herbicides used with genetically modified crops
Vaping pollutes lungs with toxic chemicals and may even make antibiotic-resistant bacteria harder to kill
Maggie Fox NBC News
Smoking rates cut in half. Eight million lives saved. More than 800,000 fewer lung cancer deaths. Fifty years after the U.S. Surgeon General first warned about the dangers of smoking, the benefits of quitting have never been clearer.
Yet 18 percent of the population still smokes. Nearly 2,000 teenagers take up the habit every day and tobacco companies advertise candy-flavored tobacco products with impunity. Is it possible this is the best the United States will ever do?
Health experts are convinced it isn’t — and they point to maps that rank states and regions by smoking status as proof. A look at a county-by-county breakdown of who smokes and where makes it clear that there are opportunities to get smoking rates way down, they say.
Kentucky has the most smokers — more than 28 percent of the population smokes there, compared to just 11 percent in Utah, which has the lowest rates, and double the 14 percent in California. And when you overlay those smoking maps with details of rates of heart disease, stroke and cancer, it’s equally clear that there are still plenty of lives to be saved by trying.
“(With) taxes, strong smoke-free laws and fully funding state tobacco prevention programs,” says Dr. Mariell Jessup, president of the American Heart Association. “These measures can reduce the number of adult smokers to less than 10 percent of the population in 10 years.”
Also, raising the legal age to buy tobacco products to 21 would go a long way to stopping kids from ever getting addicted in the first place, the Heart Association, American Lung Association, American Cancer Society, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids and other groups agree.
“We do it with booze yet we don’t do it with cigarettes, when cigarettes kill about 10 times more people than alcohol does,” says Dr. Michael Fiore of the University of Wisconsin’s Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention.
Smoking is often just another marker for social and economic disparities, Fiore adds. “Fewer than 10 percent of college graduates smoke,” Fiore points out. But 35 percent of people who never graduated from high school do.
“Two things will solve this issue over time and eliminate tobacco use. One is hard-hitting public policy. At the same time, we need the ready availability of treatments for smokers.”
A 50 year public health battle
It was Jan. 11, 1964 when then-Surgeon General Dr. Luther Terry held a news conference to announce that smoking causes cancer and probably heart disease, too. It was a time when close to half of Americans smoked — including Terry himself — and it set off a 50-year battle between regulators and the tobacco industry.
Video - From the Archives: Smoking Causes Lung Cancer: The federal government’s report presented January 11, 1964 on smoking and health was a landmark report spelling out the negative health effects of smoking. NBC’s Frank McGee reports.
Since then, science has proven beyond any doubt that smoking causes most cases of lung cancer, most heart disease and lung disease as well as stroke and a range of cancers from breast to bladder. Researchers have proven that nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known, and that tobacco companies deliberately manipulate nicotine levels in their products to get people hooked on the first cigarette and keep them hooked for life.
In a study published this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Theodore Holford of the Yale School of Public Health and colleagues estimated that 17.7 million people died between 1964 and 2012 because of smoking. But they also calculated that tobacco control measures saved 8 million lives. And the average American lives two years longer than they otherwise would have, they said. Smoking rates have plummeted from 42 percent of the population in 1965 to 18 percent today.
Yet smoking still kills 1 in 5 Americans, or 440,000 people a year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says. That includes more than 49,000 people who die from the effects of secondhand smoke.
And tobacco companies kept up the fight. When they failed to cast doubt on the health effects of smoking, they re-framed the issue as one of personal choice. When schools, cities and employers completely banned smoking on their premises, companies advertised cigarettes as stress-relievers and subtly encouraged smokers to feel like they were somehow edgy rebels instead of tobacco addicts.
Shaking a national addiction
Health experts say there are still ways to get smoking rates lower, even as policymakers grapple with new battles over e-cigarettes.One is to stop people from smoking in the first place, says Dr. James Perrin, president of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
“Eighty-eight percent or more of lifetime smokers start before they turn age 18,” he told NBC News. The adolescent brain is particularly susceptible to the addicting effects of nicotine, and just raising the legal age to buy tobacco to 21 would help get kids past the most vulnerable point, he says.
Perrin joins other health experts in urging the Food and Drug Administration to take a firmer hand. “Four years ago, the U.S. stopped sales of candy-flavored cigarettes because they are particularly appealing to children,” Perrin said. Yet little cigars flavored like cotton candy, grape and even gummy bears remain on the market. Such products are not aimed at 40-year-olds, Perrin maintains.
Taxes also have been shown to reduce smoking rates. But they are nowhere as near as high as they should be, argues Dick Woodruff of the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Action Network. “Taxes work,” Woodruff told reporters. But federal taxes are just a dollar a pack. “It’s just ridiculous,” he says. “We need to overcome the anathema Congress has on taxes and revenues and educate them.”
States add their own taxes, and Kentucky, the state with the highest smoking rates, adds just 60 cents a pack, while New York adds $4.35 a pack and Massachusetts $3.50. Studies show that the people most likely to smoke are also the most sensitive to price.
Experts also argue that states aren’t spending these tax revenues properly in helping people to stop smoking. They’re also not using a big pot of money called the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement from a giant lawsuit settled in 1998 between the attorneys general of 46 states and the four biggest tobacco companies. It provides $206 billion over 25 years — that’s more than $175 million a year per state, or more than $8 billion a year for all the states. Yet states spent just $640 million on tobacco control efforts in 2010.
Warning: Danger inside the pack
Tobacco companies have fought and lobbied against every measure. But anti-tobacco activists marked a victory on Friday. Tobacco companies and the federal government reached an agreement on a series of “corrective statements” the companies must publish. It comes from a 2006 ruling in which Washington, D.C., federal district judge Gladys Kessler ruled that the cigarette companies conspired for decades to conceal the dangers of smoking.
Under the agreement with the Justice Department , each of the companies must publish full-page ads in the Sunday editions of 35 newspapers and on the newspapers’ websites, as well as air prime-time TV spots on NBC, CBS or ABC five times per week for a year. They’ve been fighting over the wording, says Vince Willmore of the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. “The companies have appealed every step of the way,” he said.
These ads must say, for instance:
- “Smoking kills, on average, 1,200 Americans. Every day.”
- “Philip Morris USA, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco, Lorillard, and Altria intentionally designed cigarettes to make them more addictive.”
- “When you smoke, the nicotine actually changes the brain — that’s why quitting is so hard.”
The companies also must publish the statements on their own websites and affix them to a certain number of cigarette packs three times per year for two years.
Something else — doctors need to nag their patients more, says Fiore. “I would never dream of letting a patient with high blood pressure leave my office without treating it,” Fiore said. “But every day in America, millions of Americans go in and out of a physician’s office and their smoking is not treated.”
JoNel Aleccia NBC News
Surgery to remove a brain tumor two years ago has left a 12-year-old Texas girl with a heartbreaking condition that makes her gain massive amounts of weight — even though her body thinks it’s starving.
Doctors say a gastric bypass operation is the only thing that can help Alexis Shapiro, who is 4-foot-7 and weighs 198 pounds. But the U.S. military, which provides her family’s health insurance, says it won’t pay for the $50,000 weight-loss procedure because she’s too young.
“Our reviewers have denied your request for Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass,” reads the rejection notice sent this month.
Alexis’ parents — and her doctor — are protesting the decision from insurer TRICARE, which they say sentences the child to a fate of dangerous health problems and social isolation caused by hypothalamic obesity, which is packing on at least 2 pounds every week.
“It just keeps going up and up,” said her mother, Jenny Shapiro, 34, of Cibolo, Texas. “She desperately needs this. I feel like she will die if she does not get this surgery.”
In just the past three months, Alexis was hospitalized for a kidney infection and developed Type 2 diabetes that requires nightly insulin injections, both related to her growing girth.
Dr. Thomas H. Inge, a Cincinnati expert in pediatric obesity who is treating Alexis, acknowledged that there have been few cases like hers. But he said surgery may be the only way to stop weight gain that could top out at 400 pounds — and to cut the brain cravings that make Alexis want to eat an entire jar of peanut butter at one sitting.
“I think it is disappointing that they cannot see the facts of this case,” said Inge, of the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. “There is no evidence that doing nothing would be in this child’s best interests.”
But a spokesman for TRICARE and Humana Military, which provides insurance coverage for Alexis’ father, Air Force veteran Ian Shapiro, said their rules are clear. Gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries may be covered, but only if the patient is 18 or has achieved full bone growth.
“In general, our Managed Care Support Contractors are required to approve or deny coverage based on TRICARE policy,” spokesman Austin Camacho said in an email to NBC News. “We have an appeals process in place specifically designed to give our medical professionals the opportunity to examine the details of any special cases when coverage is denied.”
However, an appeal could take months or longer, said Jenny Shapiro, and there’s no guarantee that the surgery would be approved even then. She said that by-the-book denials are making the rare disease that struck her normal 9-year-old even worse than it’s already been.
‘We’ve had to padlock the cupboard’
Two years ago, Alexis was a normal, happy third-grader who liked to ride scooters and bikes with her brother Ethan, then 5, and sister, Kayley, then 7.
Then Alexis developed a craniopharyngioma, a rare kind of benign brain tumor that grows near the pituitary gland and affects at most 1 child per every million each year.
The good news was, the tumor wasn’t cancer and the surgery to remove it, though scary, went well. The bad news was, Alexis developed hypothalamic obesity, a rare condition caused by damage to the hypothalamus, the fingernail-sized organ that helps govern energy balance, appetite — and weight.
More than half of children who have such tumors develop problems with excessive eating — called hyperphagia — and significant obesity.
“The treatment is what ends up interfering with very, very important pathways that are immediately adjacent to the tumor,” Inge said.
In Alexis’ case, the result was an immediate, unceasing weight gain even with a diet restricted to 900 to 1,400 calories a day — and with extra exercise, said Jenny Shapiro. At the same time, Alexis developed a ravenous appetite.
“She’s always hungry,” Shapiro said. “In the past, we’ve had to padlock the cupboard.”
Alexis’ illness has upended family life, even though Jenny Shapiro said she works hard to keep things normal. Their daily routine is governed by a strict diet and exercise plan that is often frustrating for Alexis and the rest of the family.
It’s difficult finding clothes for Alexis, who now wears a woman’s size 1X or 2X and who goes up nearly a size every month, Jenny Shapiro said. She had to be home-schooled starting this year, both because her condition leaves her in constant pain and because of comments from other kids. It’s hard to go out in public because of the looks and whispers targeted at Alexis’ size, her mother said.
“She doesn’t have any friends or anything like that,” Jenny Shapiro said. “It’s so sad, because she remembers what it was like before.”
Worse, though, than the daily challenges is the worry about where Alexis’ illness will lead.
“You meet with the psychologist and you meet with the nutritionist,” she said. “They asked Alexis how she felt and she said she wants to die.”
The risk of devastating consequences is what compels doctors to consider bariatric surgery for patients like Alexis. The operation has lifelong consequences and no one wants to perform it on a child unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risks, Inge and other experts say.
Though the literature is scant — Inge and his colleagues have reviewed just 70 cases — craniopharyngioma patients who’ve had the surgery have lost significant weight, between 20 percent and 30 percent of their body mass. In addition, gastric bypass surgery, which makes the stomach smaller and bypasses some of the small intestine, appears to have an effect on the part of the brain related to appetite and satiety, the sense of fullness.
Just ask Tawana Blackwell, 53, of Indianapolis, Ind., whose daughter, Kelsie, was diagnosed with hypothalamic obesity at age 8 and didn’t have surgery until five years ago, at age 16. Just 5 feet tall, the girl weighed 230 pounds and was gaining up to 20 pounds a month.
After the surgery, Kelsie, now 21, lost 100 pounds and has been able to keep it off with a careful diet and regular exercise.
“I feel very blessed we were able to get this surgery done,” said Blackwell, whose health insurance through her job covered the costs. “These kids are not normal kids where you can say, go out and exercise, go on a diet and lose weight. They have a medically induced obesity state.”
Inge has been pushing for an exception to the TRICARE bariatric surgery rule based on the severity of Alexis’ symptoms. Doctors at the San Antonio Military Medical Center have referred her case for higher review, but it’s not clear where it stands.
Meanwhile, Jenny Shapiro said she’s growing desperate to help her little girl.
“These kids will literally eat themselves to death,” the mother said. “That’s what I’m scared of.”
JoNel Aleccia is a senior health writer with NBC News. Reach her on Twitter at @JoNel_Aleccia or send her an email.
Sleep apnea may increase cardiovascular risk
When we sleep, our blood pressure and heart rate decrease to help protect the heart.
But a new study finds people diagnosed with sleep apnea may not be experiencing these cardio-protective benefits.
Dr. Reena Mehra treats obstructive sleep apnea at Cleveland Clinic and authored the study.
“In sleep apnea, however, because of these bad influences of oxygen levels going down and so forth, we believe your blood pressure doesn’t go down like it normally should. Your heart rate doesn’t go down like it normally should,” said Mehra.
Mehra and a team of researchers studied nearly 300 people with established heart problems.
They found those with sleep apnea were at an increased risk for non-dipping blood pressure and heart rate while they slept.
Mehra said this is important because combining underlying heart problems with sleep apnea may increase cardiovascular risk even more.
“There is a lot of data actually that shows that non-dipping blood pressure profiles puts you at increased risk for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and increased risk for mortality or dying,” said Mehra.
Mehra said more studies are needed, but if you are diagnosed with sleep apnea, she recommends getting it treated sooner, rather than later.
“It should be impetus for somebody who has sleep apnea to say ‘I really should look into getting my sleep apnea treated because I’m at increased cardiovascular risk,’” she said.
Complete findings for the study are available online in the “Journal of Hypertension.”